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Scientific Reference Articles about Ketones

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Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease, Croteau, et al. 2018  

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2018, 64(2):551-561 

MCT oil can fill in the “brain energy gap” that occurs with aging–the difference between how much energy the brain needs and how much it receives.

 

Lauric_Acid_Stimulates_Ketone_Body_Production_in_the_KT-5_Astrocyte_Cell_Line 

Research by University of Tokyo and Nisshin Oillio shows that lauric acid which is 50% of coconut oil stimulates ketone production in astrocytes, which are cells that nourish other brain cells.

A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer’s disease. Newport MTVanItallie TBKashiwaya YKing MTVeech RL    Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Jan;11(1):99-103.

Cunnane Can Ketones Rescue aging brain July 2016 Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Cunnane & Crawford J Human Evol 2014

The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel

Courchesne-Loyer et al PET KD JCBFM 2016

Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study

 

A ketone ester diet exhibits anxiolytic and cognition-sparing properties and lessens amyloid and tau pathologies in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Richard L. Veech, Y Kashiwaya, Neurobiology of Aging, 2012, 1-10

 

Ketoacids? Good Medicine? George F. Cahill, Jr., Richard L. Veech , Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association , Vol. 114, 2003.

The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism Richard L. Veech, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids , 70 (2004) 309-319.

Ketones: Metabolism’s Ugly Duckling, TB VanItallie, TH Nufert, Nutrition Reviews , Oct 2003, Vol. 61, No 10, 327-341.

Hypothesis Paper: Ketone Bodies, Potential Therapeutic Uses. RL Veech, B Chance,Y Kashiwaya, HA Lardy, GF Cahill, Jr., IUBMB Life 2001, Vol. 51, 241247

D-b-Hydroxybutyrate protects neurons in models of Alzheimerâs and Parkinsonâs disease.  Y Kashiwaya, T Takeshima, N Mori, K Nakashima, K Clarke , and RL Veech PNAS May 9, 2000, Vol. 97 No. 10, 5440 5444

Alternate Fuel Utilization by Brain. GF Cahill, TT Aoki Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function 1980, Ch.26

Brain Metabolism during Starvation, OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill, Jr., J Clin Invest , 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-1595

Insulin, ketone bodies, and mitochondrial energy transduction. K Sato, Y Kashiwaya, et. al., including Dr. Richard Veech, Research Communications, The FASEB Journal , Vol. 9, May 1995, p. 651-658

Brain metabolism during fasting. OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill Jr ., J Clin Invest, 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-95

Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury  ML Prins, 2008, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , Vol. 28, p. 1-16

D, L-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). J.L.K. Van Hove, et. al., The Lancet Vol. 361, 4/26/2003 p.1433-1435

Treatment of Parkinson disease with diet-induced hyperketonemia: A feasibility study T. VanItallie, C. Nonas, A Di Rocco, K Boyar, K Hyams and SB Heymsfield, Neurology, 2005, Vol. 64, p. 728-730

Brain Fuel Metabolism, Aging, and Alzheimerâs Disease, S. Cunnane, S Nugent, M Roy, et. al, Nutrition, Jan. 2011

Ketone Bodies as a Fuel for the Brain during Starvation OE Owen, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Education, 2005, Vol. 33 No. 4, p. 246251

Medium Chain Fatty Acids Improve Cognitive Function in Intensively Treated Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Support in vitro Synaptic Transmission During Acute Hypoglycemia.  Kathleen A. Page, et. al., Diabetes, published online 2/17/2009

Scientific articles about a viral connection to Alzheimer’s disease and coconut oil medium chain triglycerides as potential viricidal agents:

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Enemy Within RF Itzhaki and MA Wozniak, 2008, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease , Vol. 13, P. 393-405

Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses and Killing of Cells by Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides H Thormar, CE Isaacs, HR Brown, MR Barshatsky, and T Pessolano, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , Jan 1987, Vol. 31 No. 1, p. 27-31

Development and Evaluation of Microbicidal Hydrogels Containing Monoglyceride as the Active Ingredient T Kristmunsdottir, SG Arnadottir, G Bergsson, and H Thormar, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Oct 1999, Vol. 88 No. 10, p. 1011-1015

Look up online:

www.freepatentsonline.com — Combinations of medium chain triglycerides and therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases resulting from reduced neuronal metabolism,United States Patent 20080009467, Inventor Samuel T. Henderson, Accera, Inc., Broomfield, Colorado (Ketasyn).

www.accerapharma.com — Ketone Bodies as a Therapeutic for Alzheimer’s Disease, ST Henderson, Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Vol 5, 470-480, July 2008.

Nutrient analysis of coconut oil (vegetable), NDB No: 04047  www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp

Alzheimer’s disease now affects more than 5.5 million Americans

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Coconut oil helps Alzheimer's, dementia, ALS, MS

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