Scientific Reference Articles about Coronavirus (COVID-19/SARSCoV2)
Investigating Ketone Bodies as Immunometabolic Countermeasures against Respiratory Viral Infections. Stubbs B, et al. Cell Press Online July 2020.
From the authors: “Here, we provide an overview of ketone body biology relevant to respiratory viral infection, focusing on
influenza A and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2,and discuss the opportunities, risks, and research gaps in the study of exogenous ketone bodies as novel immunometabolic interventions in these diseases.”
Age-Related Differences in Nasopharyngeal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Levels in Patients With Mild to Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Taylor Heald-Sargent, MD, PhD, et al. Jama Pediatrics, July 31, 2020
They found children < 5 years carried 10 to 100 x as much virus (SARS CoV 2 or COVID-19) in their respiratory tract compared to children ages 5 to 17 and adults, who had similar levels of virus., suggesting young children can be potent spreaders of this infection.
Scientific Reference Articles about Ketones
Potential of coconut oil and medium chain triglycerides in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Chatterjee P, Fernando M, Fernando B, et al. Mechanisms of Aging and Development, 2020; 186:e1-10. Full Article Supplemental Materials From Dr. Ralph Martins Alzheimer’s research group in Australia
Low-Fat Versus Ketogenic Diet in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Phillips, MCL, et al. Movement Disorders, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2018.
Dr. Matthew Phillips, a neurologist in New Zealand, and associates report 42% improvement in nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease with a reasonable healthy-food ketogenic diet compared to healthy-food low-fat diet. Both diets improved motor symptoms as well. Printable Journal Article Printable Ketogenic Diet Used in the Study with Recipes
Ketone Ester Drink Improves Brain Network Stability After an Overnight Fast Compared to a Calorically Equivalent Glucose Drink. Mujica-Parodi, et al. in PNAS March 2020
Safety and Tolerability of sustained exogenous ketosis using ketone monoester drinks for 28 days in healthy people. Soto-Mota, Clarke, et al. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (October 2019)
Lifelong Choline Supplementation Ameliorates Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology and Associated Cognitive Defects by Attenuating Microglia Activation, Velazquez, et al. Aging Cell, Online Library, 2019: 1-11
A Ketogenic Drink Improves Brain Energy and Some Measures of Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment, Fortier, et al. 2019 Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 2019, online:1-10
Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease, Croteau, et al. 2018
Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2018, 64(2):551-561
MCT oil can fill in the “brain energy gap” that occurs with aging–the difference between how much energy the brain needs and how much it receives.
Research by University of Tokyo and Nisshin Oillio shows that lauric acid which is 50% of coconut oil stimulates ketone production in astrocytes, which are cells that nourish other brain cells.
A New Way to Produce Hyperketonemia: Use of Ketone Ester in a Case of Alzheimer’s Disease. Newport MT, VanItallie TB, Kashiwaya Y, King MT, Veech RL Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Jan;11(1):99-103.
Can Ketones Rescue aging brain?, Cunnane, July 2016 Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel…
Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study…
A Ketone Ester Diet Exhibits Anxiolytic and Cognition-Sparing Properties and Lessens Amyloid and Tau Pathologies in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Richard L. Veech, Y Kashiwaya, Neurobiology of Aging, 2012, 1-10
Ketoacids? Good Medicine? George F. Cahill, Jr., Richard L. Veech , Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association , Vol. 114, 2003.
The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, and mitochondrial metabolism Richard L. Veech, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids , 70 (2004) 309-319.
Ketones: Metabolism’s Ugly Duckling, TB VanItallie, TH Nufert, Nutrition Reviews , Oct 2003, Vol. 61, No 10, 327-341.
Hypothesis Paper: Ketone Bodies, Potential Therapeutic Uses. RL Veech, B Chance,Y Kashiwaya, HA Lardy, GF Cahill, Jr., IUBMB Life 2001, Vol. 51, 241247
D-b-Hydroxybutyrate protects neurons in models of Alzheimerâs and Parkinsonâs disease. Y Kashiwaya, T Takeshima, N Mori, K Nakashima, K Clarke , and RL Veech PNAS May 9, 2000, Vol. 97 No. 10, p. 5440-5444
Alternate Fuel Utilization by Brain. GF Cahill, TT Aoki Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function 1980, Ch.26
Brain Metabolism during Starvation, OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill, Jr., J Clin Invest , 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-1595
… ketone bodies, and mitochondrial energy transduction. K Sato, Y Kashiwaya, et. al., including Dr. Richard Veech, Research Communications, The FASEB Journal , Vol. 9, May 1995, p. 651-658
Brain metabolism during fasting. OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill Jr ., J Clin Invest, 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-95
Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury ML Prins, 2008, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , Vol. 28, p. 1-16
D, L-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). J.L.K. Van Hove, et. al., The Lancet Vol. 361, 4/26/2003 p.1433-1435
Treatment of Parkinson disease with diet-induced hyperketonemia: A feasibility study T. VanItallie, C. Nonas, A Di Rocco, K Boyar, K Hyams and SB Heymsfield, Neurology, 2005, Vol. 64, p. 728-730
Brain Fuel Metabolism, Aging, and Alzheimerâs Disease, S. Cunnane, S Nugent, M Roy, et. al, Nutrition, Jan. 2011
Ketone Bodies as a Fuel for the Brain during Starvation OE Owen, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Education, 2005, Vol. 33 No. 4, p. 246-251
Medium Chain Fatty Acids Improve Cognitive Function in Intensively Treated Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Support in vitro Synaptic Transmission During Acute Hypoglycemia. Kathleen A. Page, et. al., Diabetes, published online 2/17/2009
Scientific articles about a viral connection to Alzheimer’s disease and coconut oil medium chain triglycerides as potential viricidal agents:
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Enemy Within RF Itzhaki and MA Wozniak, 2008, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease , Vol. 13, p. 393-405
Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses and Killing of Cells by Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides H Thormar, CE Isaacs, HR Brown, MR Barshatsky, and T Pessolano, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , Jan 1987, Vol. 31 No. 1, p. 27-31
Development and Evaluation of Microbicidal Hydrogels Containing Monoglyceride as the Active Ingredient T Kristmunsdottir, SG Arnadottir, G Bergsson, and H Thormar, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Oct 1999, Vol. 88 No. 10, p. 1011-1015
Look up online:
www.freepatentsonline.com — Combinations of medium chain triglycerides and therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases resulting from reduced neuronal metabolism,United States Patent 20080009467, Inventor Samuel T. Henderson, Accera, Inc., Broomfield, Colorado (Ketasyn).
www.accerapharma.com — Ketone Bodies as a Therapeutic for Alzheimer’s Disease, ST Henderson, Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Vol 5, 470-480, July 2008.
Nutrient analysis of coconut oil (vegetable), NDB No: 04047 www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp