References for Studies, Reviews, Case Reports on Ketones, MCT Oil, Coconut Oil, and Ketogenic Diets for Alzheimer’s and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Many of the full articles from this list of references are available to print (free) below.

A New Way to Produce Hyperketonemia: Use of Ketone Ester in a Case of Alzheimer’s Disease. Newport MT, VanItallie TB, Kashiwaya Y, King MT, Veech RL  Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Jan;11(1):99-103.

A Ketogenic Drink Improves Brain Energy and Some Measures of Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment, Fortier, et al. 2019  Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 2019, online:1-10.

Applications of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Foods. Watanabe S and Tsujino S Frontiers in Nutrition V. 9 June 2022

Ketone Ester Effects on Biomarkers of Brain Metabolism & Cognitive Performance in Cognitively Intact Adults ≥ 55 Years Old. A Study Protocol for a Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Avgerinos KI, et al. J Prev Alz Dis 2022;1(9):54-66

Beneficial Effects of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements on Aging Processes and Age-Related Neurodegenerative DiseasesKovács Z, B Brunner, C Ari. Nutrients V. 13, no. 7 (2021): 2197.

A ketogenic drink improves cognition in mild cognitive impairment: Results of a 6-month RCT. Fortier, et al. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2021;17:543–552.

Brain energy rescue: an emerging therapeutic concept for neurodegenerative disorders of ageing. Cunnane, et al. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery V. 19 No. 9 (2020):609-633.

Fasting and Exercise Therapy for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, William Curtis Cells 2022


Scientific Reference Articles about Ketones

Potential of coconut oil and medium chain triglycerides in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.  

Chatterjee P, Fernando M, Fernando B, et al.  Mechanisms of Aging and Development, 2020; 186:e1-10. Full Article Supplemental Materials From Dr. Ralph Martins Alzheimer’s research group in Australia


Low-Fat Versus Ketogenic Diet in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Phillips, MCL, et al. Movement Disorders, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2018.

Dr. Matthew Phillips, a neurologist in New Zealand, and associates report 42% improvement in nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease with a reasonable healthy-food ketogenic diet compared to healthy-food low-fat diet. Both diets improved motor symptoms as well.  Printable Journal Article  Printable  Ketogenic Diet Used in the Study with Recipes


Ketone Ester Drink Improves Brain Network Stability After an Overnight Fast Compared to a Calorically Equivalent Glucose Drink. Mujica-Parodi, et al. in PNAS March 2020


Leading Scientists Agree: Current Limits on Saturated Fats No Longer Justified (Feb 25, 2020)


Safety and Tolerability of sustained exogenous ketosis using ketone monoester drinks for 28 days in healthy people.Soto-Mota, Clarke, et al. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (October 2019)


Lifelong Choline Supplementation Ameliorates Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology and Associated Cognitive Defects by Attenuating Microglia Activation, Velazquez, et al. Aging Cell, Online Library, 2019: 1-11


Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease, Croteau, et al. 2018  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2018, 64(2):551-561

MCT oil can fill in the “brain energy gap” that occurs with aging–the difference between how much energy the brain needs and how much it receives.

Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line 

Research by University of Tokyo and Nisshin Oillio shows that lauric acid which is 50% of coconut oil stimulates ketone production in astrocytes, which are cells that nourish other brain cells.

Can Ketones Rescue aging brain?, Cunnane, July 2016 Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Cunnane & Crawford J Human Evol 2014

The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel…

Courchesne-Loyer et al PET KD JCBFM 2016

Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study…

A Ketone Ester Diet Exhibits Anxiolytic and Cognition-Sparing Properties and Lessens Amyloid and Tau Pathologies in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Richard L. Veech, Y Kashiwaya, Neurobiology of Aging, 2012, 1-10

Ketoacids? Good Medicine? George F. Cahill, Jr., Richard L. Veech , Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association , Vol. 114, 2003.

The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, and mitochondrial metabolism Richard L. Veech, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids , 70 (2004) 309-319.

Ketones: Metabolism’s Ugly Duckling, TB VanItallie, TH Nufert, Nutrition Reviews , Oct 2003, Vol. 61, No 10, 327-341.

Hypothesis Paper: Ketone Bodies, Potential Therapeutic Uses. RL Veech, B Chance,Y Kashiwaya, HA Lardy, GF Cahill, Jr., IUBMB Life 2001, Vol. 51, 241247

D-b-Hydroxybutyrate protects neurons in models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.  Y Kashiwaya, T Takeshima, N Mori, K Nakashima, K Clarke , and RL Veech PNAS May 9, 2000, Vol. 97 No. 10, p. 5440-5444

Alternate Fuel Utilization by Brain. GF Cahill, TT Aoki Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function 1980, Ch.26

Brain Metabolism during Starvation, OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill, Jr., J Clin Invest , 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-1595

… ketone bodies, and mitochondrial energy transduction. K Sato, Y Kashiwaya, et. al., including Dr. Richard Veech, Research Communications, The FASEB Journal , Vol. 9, May 1995, p. 651-658

Brain metabolism during fasting. OE Owen, AP Morgan, HG Kemp, JM Sullivan, MG Herrera, GF Cahill Jr ., J Clin Invest, 1967, Vol. 46, p. 1589-95

Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury , ML Prins, 2008, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , Vol. 28, p. 1-16

D, L-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). J.L.K. Van Hove, et. al., The Lancet Vol. 361, 4/26/2003 p.1433-1435

Treatment of Parkinson disease with diet-induced hyperketonemia: A feasibility study T. VanItallie, C. Nonas, A Di Rocco, K Boyar, K Hyams and SB Heymsfield, Neurology, 2005, Vol. 64, p. 728-730

Brain Fuel Metabolism, Aging, and Alzheimerâs Disease, S. Cunnane, S Nugent, M Roy, et. al, Nutrition, Jan. 2011

Ketone Bodies as a Fuel for the Brain during Starvation OE Owen, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Education, 2005, Vol. 33 No. 4, p. 246-251

Medium Chain Fatty Acids Improve Cognitive Function in Intensively Treated Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Support in vitro Synaptic Transmission During Acute Hypoglycemia.  Kathleen A. Page, et. al., Diabetes, published online 2/17/2009

Scientific articles about a viral connection to Alzheimer’s disease and coconut oil medium chain triglycerides as potential viricidal agents:

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Enemy Within RF Itzhaki and MA Wozniak, 2008, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease , Vol. 13, p. 393-405

Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses and Killing of Cells by Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides H Thormar, CE Isaacs, HR Brown, MR Barshatsky, and T Pessolano, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , Jan 1987, Vol. 31 No. 1, p. 27-31

Development and Evaluation of Microbicidal Hydrogels Containing Monoglyceride as the Active Ingredient T Kristmunsdottir, SG Arnadottir, G Bergsson, and H Thormar, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Oct 1999, Vol. 88 No. 10, p. 1011-1015

White Paper: It’s Time to Find the Alzheimer’s Germ Leslie Norins MD, 2018, previously published on

Look up online: — Combinations of medium chain triglycerides and therapeutic agents for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases resulting from reduced neuronal metabolism,United States Patent 20080009467, Inventor Samuel T. Henderson, Accera, Inc., Broomfield, Colorado (Ketasyn). — Ketone Bodies as a Therapeutic for Alzheimer’s Disease, ST Henderson, Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Vol 5, 470-480, July 2008.

FoodData Central ( – Find Nutrient analysis for coconut oil and other foods


Scientific Reference Articles about Coronavirus (COVID-19/SARSCoV2)

Studies of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) for COVID-19 Infection:

Lauric acid, which is half of coconut oil, has antimicrobial activity against the COVID-19 coronavirus. VCO also contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances that could help reduce inflammation. Here are two studies showing more rapid reduction in CRP levels, and the second study also showed a marked reduction in symptom recovery:

Virgin coconut oil is effective in lowering C-reactive protein levels among
suspect and probable cases of COVID-19. Angeles-Agdeppa, F Dayrit, et al. J Functional Foods V. 83 (2021)

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) supplementation relieves symptoms and inflammation (PDF)
among COVID-19 positive adults: a single-blind randomized trial. Angeles-Agdeppa, F Dayrit, et al. J Nutritional Science V. 13 (2024)

Ketones might help reduce serious inflammation in COVID-19 – Two hypothesis articles:

Investigating Ketone Bodies as Immunometabolic Countermeasures against Respiratory Viral Infections.Stubbs B, et al. Cell Press Online July 2020.

From the authors: “Here, we provide an overview of ketone body biology relevant to respiratory viral infection, focusing on influenza A and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, and discuss the opportunities, risks, and research gaps in the study of exogenous ketone bodies as novel immunometabolic interventions in these diseases.”

COVID-19: Proposing a Ketone-Based Metabolic Therapy as a Treatment to Blunt the Cytokine Storm, Bradshaw, Curtis, et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2020

Also on this website:

Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, & Dementia

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Ketone Research Articles

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